Globally, soils are the largest terrestrial contributor of carbon (C) flux to the atmosphere. Carbon is released from soils mainly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by microbial and plant processes. The production of CO2 in soils is closely connected to physical drivers like temperature and soil water content, which may change in response to global climate change.Ecosystems like heathlands and grasslands cover large portions of the Northern hemisphere and store large amounts of C. These ecosystems experience harsh winter conditions with multiple freeze-thaw cycles and other climatic events that significantly impact CO2 emissions. While overwinter CO2 fluxes have traditionally been assumed to be negligible, recent research has shown winter emissions can contribute significantly to the annual ecosystem C balance.



eosFD’s measuring CO2 flux at the CLIMAITE facility

Rainforests are one of the most unique terrestrial ecosystems in the world, producing 40% of the Earth's oxygen and housing between 40-75% of biotic specieson the planet. High rainfall, almost constantly warm temperatures and high transpiration means that rainforests are perpetually humid ecosystems. While the lush appearance of rainforests might suggest high soil nutrient contents, constantly wet conditions cause extensive nutrient leaching, leaving shallow, nutrient poor soils. What rainforests may lack in soil nutrients they make up for in their contribution to the global carbon budget. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) fromrainforest soils are among the highest measured globally,and despite covering less than 3% of the Earth’s surface,rainforest methane (CH4) emissions are an important contributor to global CH4 budgets. READ MORE


An eosAC deployed in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in Puerto Rico. Photo: Christine O'Connell

Globally, soils are the largest terrestrial contributor of carbon (C) flux to the atmosphere. Carbon is released from soils mainly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted as a result of microbial and plant processes, but also as methane (CH4 ), a potent greenhouse gas with 28 times the warming potential of CO2. The production of CO2 and CH4 in soils is closely connected to physical drivers like temperature and soil water content, which may change in response to climate change. Ecosystems like heathlands and grasslands cover large areas of the Northern hemisphere and also store large amounts of C in the soil. At the CLIMAITE climate change research facility in Brandbjerg, Denmark, researchers from the University of Copenhagen are trying to understand C dynamics under present and manipulated climate conditions.. READ MORE


Dr. Jesper Christiansen in his rain gear checking on the eosAC chambers located in the control plot.

Accurate Measurements of Arctic Carbon Emissions During Winter

Arctic permafrost soils hold stores of organic carbon which amount to more than twice the carbon currently in the atmosphere, or almost 1,700 Gigatons (Schuur et al., 2015). Soil respiration releases CO2 into the atmosphere and represents an important contribution to the overall carbon cycle, but it is difficult to measure in cold winter months in arctic regions. Due to the accumulation of snow and ice, most available automated chamber methods for monitoring CO2 fluxes which require freedom of movement, cannot be used. READ MORE


eosFD soil flux sensor deployed in summer near the new Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk Highway

​Soil Gas Flux Factors in a Hilly Tropical Forest

Tropical rainforests are large sources of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4), which are known to be potent greenhouse gases (GHGs). Despite this, greenhouse gas flux in tropical rainforests is not well studied due to the difficulties of deploying and maintaining equipment. This gap in knowledge is a considerable issue since it is poorly known what factors control the sources and sinks of GHGs from tropical ecosystems, and in particular tropical soils, which makes it difficult to try and estimate how climate change will influence these dynamics. READ MORE


An array of eosACs deployed on the forest floor in Puerto Rico. Photo: Christine O'Connell

Carbon Sequestration in a Drought-Stressed California River Delta​

Climate change is one of the most important issues in the world, today and into the future. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most abundant greenhouse gases (GHG) in our atmosphere, making it an essential gas to understand. Eosense’s waterproof CO2 probes are helping to answer climate change and mitigation questions by assisting the Baldocchi Lab at UC Berkeley in gathering the necessary data for their studies on the carbon dynamics of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (SSJD). While their work is ongoing, interesting insights into the carbon dynamics of the SSJD have already been brought to light. READ MORE

Research technician in water in San Joaquin Sacramento Delta

A student wades through a wetland in the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta, one of the many field sites of the Baldocchi Lab. Photo: Baldocchi Lab

Agricultural Gas Flux Measurements in Strawberry Fields

When you think of measuring soil gas flux, you might first think of static chambers and gas chromatography. Static chambers, a traditional field sampling system, appear to be the least expensive option on the market and offer the benefits of a well-blazed trail. Here is a real world example of Dr. Marc Los Huertos of Pomona College in California, who was deciding between static chambers/gas chromatography or an automated chamber and analyzer system, and what his reasoning was for choosing the system that he did. READ MORE

eosAC soil gas flux chambers in strawberry fields

The Picarro G2508 Analyzer and eosACs in the field, California. Photo: Los Huertos Lab

From Riverine to Estuarine

Headwaters of rivers and streams are important components of the carbon cycle, as they are typically supersaturated with carbon dioxide (CO2) relative to the atmosphere. While aquatic processes produce some CO2 in situ, a large portion of the CO2 present in headwater streams is fixed by surrounding forests and returned to the atmosphere as stream gas efflux (Aufdenkampe et al. 2011; Leith et al. 2015). Despite their importance to the terrestrial and aquatic carbon balance, headwater streams remain poorly understood. The purpose of this application note was to replicate Butman & Raymond’s (2011) study on a smaller scale, using Eosense’s CO2 Gas Probe (eosGP). READ MORE
eosAC soil gas flux chambers in strawberry fields

The eosGP collecting in situ data in Cow Bay River, Nova Scotia

Surveying Aqueous CO2 in the Field

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important, well-known greenhouse gas that has been studied extensively. As methodologies and sampling technologies improve, researchers are able to develop a fuller understanding of carbon dioxide dynamics and their response to climate change, allowing for more robust climate model predictions. A large piece missing from these climate models are aquatic CO2 dynamics. READ MORE
Yukon River Basin study map

Yukon River Basin (Striegl et al. 2012)